The Agricultural Sector Linkages Program (ASLP), which is a joint Australia-Pakistan program, a project was launched in December 2006 titled “Optimising mango supply chains for more profitable agri-enterprises in Pakistan and Australia” HORT/2005/157. Project was targeted the postharvest, marketing, supply chain and capacity building elements of the Pakistan mango industry by working at demonstration level with all members of the supply chain, as well as R&D providers and government agencies. This project was reviewed mid-term in 2008 and was officially completed in March 2010. The mid-term review identified considerable positive progress against project objectives and milestones and recommended that it be extended into a second phase over four years from 2010 to 2014.
Phase 2 project that has resulted from review recommendation is titled “Mango value chain improvement” HORT/2010/001, and is the subject of this proposal. It is argued that HORT/2010/001 should extend the collaboration and support initiated under HORT/2005/157 in general, and specifically it should address the challenges of postharvest disease management, shelf-life extension, quality management, greater value creation and more attention to pro-poor benefit distribution in Pakistan mango value chains. To achieve these outcomes it will be necessary for the project to continue to work synergistically with the mango production project HORT/2010/006 “Integrated crop management practices to enhance value chain outcomes for the mango industry in Pakistan and Australia”, as well as with a new project, HORT/2010/003 “Fostering effective collaboration and strengthening pro-poor benefit flows in value chain projects for Pakistan rural industries”.
Project team comprises of an excellent group of postharvest and marketing scientists from Pakistan and Australia. Pakistan Horticulture Development & Export Company (PHDEC) and University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) are the implementing partners from Pakistan while the Australian counterpart organizations include University of Queensland (UQ); Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI); and Department of Agriculture & Forestry, Western Australia (DAFWA). It aimed to address key constraints currently limiting the efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness of supply chains for Pakistan mangoes.
The specific focus of HORT/2010/001 will be to continue to develop and improve domestic and export value chains, focusing on following parameters;
- delivering better quality fruit to consumers
- developing and improving markets and
- demonstrating value chain principles
- with capacity building and delivering pro-poor benefits a central tenet and enabler
- Research and Outreach
- Detailed orchard rating studies have been conducted to identify low disease blocks of Sindhri and S.B. Chaunsa in Punjab (Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Vehari, Khanewal and Lodhran). Sindhri orchard rating studies during 2011 included 07 orchards both for Sindhri and S.B. Chaunsa. During 2012, for Sindhri 05 orchards were included from Sindh (ambient studies only), and 12 orchards from Punjab. S.B. Chaunsa studies included 19 orchards from Punjab. While 2013 studies included 13 orchards for Sindhri and 19 orchards for S.B. Chaunsa. The performance of fruit harvested from the selected orchards of Punjab was studied under ambient (28+1°C; 60-65%RH) and low temperature storage (12+1°C; 80-85% RH) conditions. The findings showed significant role of orchard practices with postharvest disease development. Orchard hygiene, plant protection measures, nutrition and environmental issues- the key issues related to post-storage disease development. Different districts differed significantly in terms of disease development at ripe stage.
- Protocols developed for sea-freighting Sindhri mangoes to Europe and commercially tested with Sindh Mango Growers (SMG) sea-freight consignments to Europe during 2012 and 2013.
- Detailed work was conducted at UAF to develop strategies for skin colour development in S.B. Chaunsa mangoes. Protocol developed and on-farm static trial demonstration given to the industry in Multan for sea-freight of S.B. Chaunsa to UAE (Dubai) and similar distance markets. The protocol included cooling of fruit to 12°C for 8-12 hrs followed by shipping to Dubai at 17°C (80-85%RH).
- Ripening protocol (100ppm ethylene, 48hrs, 24°C) established for Sindhri mangoes. S.B. Chaunsa mangoes to be ripened at higher temperature (32-35°C) for proper colour development. The protocols are being communicated to the industry with the advice to give-up the traditional practice of mango fruit ripening with calcium carbide.
- SER, body rots and anthracnose identified as major postharvest diseases.
- Extensive work done on pathological aspects including isolation and identification of pathogens. Pathogen isolations were done from the fruit sampled from different orchards of Sindh and Punjab province for orchard rating studies. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae were the two most prevalent pathogens isolated from both Sindhri and S.B. Chaunsa mangoes. Moreover, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae and Aspergillus niger were also isolated under storage conditions. The studies suggest targeting these pathogens both at pre- and postharvest levels in order to increase the outturn of the domestic and export consignments at the retail end.
- Various new chemistry fungicides (i.e. Nativo, Scholar, Cabrio Top, Amistar, Sportak) evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.
- Performance validation trials for registration of Nativo (as a postharvest fungicide) were done in collaboration with Bayer CropScience during 2012. Nativo is currently under registration process. Identification of Nativo’s potential for SER control is outcome of the project
- Comprehensive studies conducted on irradiation of mangoes (cv. Sindhri, S.B. Chaunsa and Sufaid Chaunsa). with focus on optimization of irradiation dose level for commercial mango and to study the effect of irradiation on quality and shelflife of locally produced mango cultivars. Irradiation @ 400Gy was found better in terms of physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes. The work was presented at 7th International Postharvest Symposium, Malaysia during June, 2012.
- Detailed market research work conducted regarding socio-economic impact (product and financial flows) of using ASLP-II best practices in domestic markets
- The project supervised (Farm to Market) seven air consignments (One to Malaysia during 2011; two to China during 2011; three during 2012 and one during 2013 );
- Four sea-freight consignments (cv. Sindhri) supervised from farm to Europe (one to Netherlands during 2012 and three to UK during 2013). The outturn assessments of the consignments were conducted by project team in respective markets.
- Significant R&D conducted on value added products development (i.e. Raw mangoes slices, pickles, mango powder etc.
- Capacity Building/Engaging Stakeholders
- Workshop on Sea-Freight Technology held at UAF during 2011. The workshop included participants across the industry including growers, contractors, exporters, freight forwarders, inland logistic services, shipping companies, certification agents, packaging companies, pesticide companies and other related organizations with more than 10 female participants (20 F + 90 M = Total 110)
- Market research training (43 hours)-2011 (18 M + 04 F = Total 22)
- Market research training – 2012 (07 persons; All males)
- Export market research trainings:
2012-China (02 persons; both males)
2013-UK (03 persons; all males)
- Training given to Sindh Mango Growers (SMG), their technical staff and workers during 2012 and 2013 on sea-freighting mangoes to Europe (Netherlands/UK). The capacity of SMG was developed on commercial sea-freight operations including harvest, handling, processing, packaging, palletizing, cooling, containerization etc
2012: 13 Participants; All males
2013: 09 Participants; All males
- Trainings on Mango Packhouse Commissioning (2012)
11 participants; All males
- Training on Workforce (Labour and supervisory staff) on mango post harvest handling for sea shipment
2012: 45 Participants; All males
2013: 200 Participants; All males
- The project collaborated with PARB CA-Technology Project concluding seminar at UAF during 2012 (104 M + 07 F = Total 111)
- Training on Reefer container/CA container technology held at UAF during 2011
(11 M + 02 F = Total 13)
- Training of social project cluster growers in Sindh (trainings given at 3 social project farms during 2013) in collaboration with ASLP Social Project (120 M + 00 F = Total 120)
- Four pre/post-season stakeholders workshops/meetings held at Sindh and Punjab; results/information and lessons learned were shared with the participants (2011-12) (118 M + 04 F = Total 122)
- In collaboration with UNIDO/TRTA-II project, on-farm trainings given to small growers in Shujabad (Multan) and Vehari for improving harvest, handling and packing operations and developing small-scale packhouses (37 participants; All males)
- A seminar on mango export was held at SAU during 2012 (49 M + 11 F = Total 60)
- Lecture on integrated approach for mango quality management held at UAF-2012
- lecture on value chain management principles and their application in Pakistan mango industry held at UAF-2012 (32 M + 13 F = Total 45)
- Two days (in-house + field) trainings of trainers (ToTs)/Workshops conducted both in Sindh and Punjab during 2013 (51 M + 04 F = Total 55)
- ASLP Seminar on Research and Developments in Mango Value Chains- Nov 2013
(143 M + 17 F = Total 160)
(30 M+11F = Total 41)
- Women Involvement in Mango Value Chains
- 03 female students (one PhD and 02 MPhil) doing work on value addition work at Sindh Agri. University, Tandojam;
- 03 female students completed MPhil in Plant Pathology under project; 01 female MPhil student doing postharvest R&D work on mango under the project
- At SAU, training of 30 females was held on value added product development (raw mango slices, pickles, mango peel and pulp powder etc.)
- 20 females were participated in Workshop on Sea-Freight Technology held at UAF during 2011
- Training on Mango Sea Freight Container Technology (UAF) 2011 involved 02 female participants
- Training of Trainers (ToT) Workshop (2013/Sindh) involved 05 female participants
- ASLP lecture on mango quality management (2011/UAF) = 11 females
- ASLP lecture on principles of mango value chain management and their applications (2011/UAF) = 13 females
- Market research training (2011/UAF) = 04 females
- ASLP-PARB CA/MA technology seminar (2012/UAF)= 07 females
- ASLP Seminar on Mango Export (2013/SAU) = 11 females
- Pre/Postseason workshops (2011, 12) = 04 females
- Industry/Other Projects Collaborations
- Collaboration with other ASLP projects (Mango production project, Social component) (link orchard rating 2013 and capacity building)
- Collaboration with UNIDO/TRTA-II in developing COPs for mango harvest and handling for improving produce quality and safety
- Collaboration with Bayer CropScience for R&D and registration of fungicides for postharvest treatment on mango
- Collaboration with Syngenta Pakistan for postharvest fungicidal treatments in mango
- Collaboration with Nedpak Pvt Ltd for MAP studies
- Presentations of Project work at different forums
- Assessment and Management of Postharvest Fungal Pathogens in Mango 7th International CIGR Technical Symposium- Postharvest Africa, Stellenbosch University, South Africa (Nov, 2012)
- Canopy Direction Influences Fruit Maturation and Correlation between Destructive and Non- Destructive Maturity Indices in Mango 7th International CIGR Technical Symposium- Postharvest Africa, Stellenbosch University, South Africa (Nov, 2012)
- Phyto-sanitary irradiation treatments in relation with desapping and processing types affect mango fruit quality. 7th International Postharvest Symposium, Putra World Trade Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia (June, 2012)
- Selection, Harvest and Postharvest Management of Mango Fruit for Export, Seminar organized by Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP) at Multan Chamber of Commerce (2012)
- Issues and Advances in Postharvest Disease Management of Mango under Pakistan-Australia Agriculture Sector Linkages Program: Mango Supply/Value Chain Management Projects 8th National Conference of Pakistan Phytopathological Society, Deptt. of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (2011)
- Optimum conditions for shipping and ripening of mango cvs. Sindhri and Samar Bahisht Chaunsa. 2nd International Conference of Plant Scientists, GC, University Lahore (Feb, 2011)
- Comparative fruit quality of ‘Samar Bahisht Chaunsa’ mango in relation to nutritional management. Prospects & challenges to sustainable agriculture. The University of AJK, Rawalakot, Pakistan (2011)
- Postharvest Management of Mangoes organized by Mango Research Institute (MRI), Multan (March, 2013)
- Train the Trainer activity on Mango Export organized by Pakistan Horticulture Development & Export Company (PHDEC) at Multan (May, 2013) (21 participants; All males)
- Training workshop on Mango Quality Improvement conducted by Pakistan Horticulture Development & Export Company (PHDEC) at Kabirwala (April, 2013) (35 participants; All males)
- Publications/Research Papers
- ASLP-Primer (Short version) entitled “Current Best Practices Guidelines for Mango Supply Chain Management in Pakistan: Concepts and Definitions” having guidelines for the industry has been published and is being distributed to industry at mass-scale. While detailed version (Manual) of ASLP Best Practice Value Chain guidelines is under final editing.
- Project Newsletters were published and distributed in project stakeholders
- ASLP Trial Shipment Monitoring Reports (China, KL, EU)
- China & EU Market Research Reports
- Domestic Market Research Report
- Auditing Report of SMG HWT facilities
- Train the Trainers Manual on Mango Quality & Value Chain Management
- Amin, M., A.U. Malik, M.S. Khalid and R. Anwar. 2013. Fruit harvest maturity indicators for mango cultivars ‘Sindhri’ and ‘Samar Bahisht Chaunsa’. Acta Horticulturae 992:561-567.
- Amin M., Malik A.U., Khan A.S. and Javed N. 2011. Potential of fungicides and plant activator for postharvest disease management in mangoes. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 13, 671-676. (Impact Factor: 0.940)
- Jabbar A., Malik A.U., Maqbool M., Amin M., Saeed M. and Hameed R. 2012. Anti-sap chemicals and hot water quarantine treatment effects on storage life and fruit quality of mango cv. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(2), 757-764. (Impact Factor: 0.907)
- Thesis produced under the project
- PhD Theses = 2
- Integrated apporaches for improving fruit quality and shelflife of two commercial mango cultivars of Pakistan (Mr. Muhammad Amin, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) (ASLP funded activity)
- Evaluation of controlled atmosphere and modified atmosphere conditions for the transport of mangoes to distant markets (Mr. Omer Hafeez Malik; Joint Output in collaboration with PARB)
- MSc (Hons) Theses Completed = 13 (08 Horticulture-all males and 05 Plant Pathology- 2 females, 3 males)
- MSc (Hons) students on-roll: 12 (6 horticulture, 4 plant pathology, 2 marketing)